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I Modeling of the LII Process

I.a Structure of model approaches. A Review

- which different levels of complexity are applied by the different models?


I.b Energy- and mass balance during particle heating and cooling

- separation of heating and cooling or simulation of the complete process - considered heat fluxes

- temperature dependence of the heat capacity

- solution of the differential equation-system (heat- and mass balance) 


I.c Different models for heat fluxes

- different Knudsen regions


I.d Simulation of radiation signals

- influence of particle size distribution

- consideration of the radial and temporal distribution of laser fluence 


I.e Material properties



II Experimental 

II.a Excitation

- wavelength - influence of radial and temporal energy distribution - devices for homogenisation of laser fluence


II.b Signal Detection

- one- or two-dimensional signal detection

- camera or photomultiplier

- detection wavelengths

- potential interference


II.c Influence of laser fluence

- on signals: excitation curve

- on particles: change of aggregate structure and particle morphology


II.d Two-color applications for direct temperature measurement



III Signal evaluation

III.a Determination of particle size or size distribution from measured signals

 - Fitting of measured curves or numerical solution of Fredholm integral equation


III.b Influence of the particle shape / degree of agglomeration


III.c Determination of particle volume fraction from the measured signals

- problem of calibration

- correction of temperature difference between calibration and measurement



 IV Comparison of different approaches of all involved groups